The history of Gujarat began with the Stone Age settlement followed by Chalcolithic and Bronze Age settlements like the Indus Valley Civilizations. Gujarat’s coastal cities, especially Baruch served as posts and trading centres in the Nanda, Maurya, Satavahana, and Gupta empires as well as Western Kshatrapas period. In the 6th century the Gupta empire fell and Gujarat grew as an independent Hindu and Buddhist state. The Maitraka dynasty descended from the Gupta general ruled from the 6th to the 8th centuries from their capital Vallabhi.
The capital Valabhipura was a great centre of Buddhist, Vedic, and Jain learning. The Maitraka dynasty was succeeded by the Gurjara Pratiharas (the imperial Gurjaras of Kannauj) who ruled during the 8th and 9th centuries and thereafter came the Solanki dynasty. It was during the reign of Solankis that Gujarat reached its farthest limits and grew to new economic and cultural heights. Siddharaj Jayasimha and Kumarapala were the most famous Solanki Kings.
Karnadeva Vaghela of the next Vaghela Dynasty was defeated by the Sultan of Delhi, Ala Al-Din Khalji in 1299. Gujarat then came under Muslim rule. Ahmedabad was founded by Ahmad Shah the first independent sultan of Gujarat. By the end of the 16th century, Gujarat was under the rule of the Mughals. They ruled till the middle of the 18th century and then the Marathas took the reign of Gujarat in their hands.
In 1818, the East India Company undertook the administration of Gujarat. After the Sepoy Mutiny in 1857-88 the state became a province of the British Crown and was divided into various states with an area of 10,000 square miles and several other new states namely Saurashtra and Kachchh. After independence in 1947, Gujarat was included in the Bombay state. In 1956, the province was enlarged to include Kachchh and Saurashtra in it. On 1st May 1960, India’s Bombay was split to form the present day Gujarat and Maharashtra.
In April 1965, a fight broke out between India and Pakistan in the Rann of Kutch the area was long in dispute between the two nations. Cease fire was put on July 1 and an arbitration was submitted to the international arbitration. The tribunal’s award published in 1968 gave nine-tenths of the territory to India and one tenth to Pakistan.