Chhattisgarh Geography

State: Chhattisgarh
Capital: Raipur
Formation Date: November 1, 2000
Latitude: 21.2787° North
Longitude: 81.8661° East
Area: 135,192 km²
High Court: Village Bodri, Bilaspur
Number of Districts: 27
Population: 2.94 crores (2020)
Official Website: https://chhattisgarh.nic.in/

Chhattisgarh, 9th largest state of India by area, is the east central state in the country. It has Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh to its north, Odisha to its east, Telangana to the South, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra to its west. The capital of the state is Raipur. It has a population of roughly 30 million residing in 52,199 square miles. 

Land

Chhattisgarh is located in the Chhattisgarh Plain which forms the upper Mahanadi River Basin. The basin lies at an elevation that ranges from 800 to 950 feet above the sea level. It is characterised with topographic variations caused because of extensive denudation. The Chhattisgarh plain is 100 miles wide and is bounded by the Chota Nagpur plateau to its north, Maikala Range to its west, Raigarh hills to its northeast, the Raipur upland to its southeast and the Bastar plateau to the south. The highlands are mostly erosional plateaus from reaching an elevation of more than 2300 feet in Maikala range and Dandakaranya hills. 

Earthquakes are infrequent here. Chhattisgarh has one of the most important rivers of the South Asian peninsula, the Mahanadi. It originates near a village in Raipur. It flows westwards for 200 kms meets the Shivnath river and then flows towards the east, enters Odisha and finally empties in the Bay of Bengal. The other rivers are Indravati, Arpa, and Pairi that flow in the plains. There are various types of soil in the region but mostly black clayey soil, and the red to yellow soil. 

Climate

There is a distinct summer season here from March to May, and winter from November to February, the monsoon months are from June to September. The summer is hot, dry, and windy with high temperatures. Winters are dry and pleasant. In December and January there is rainfall in the northern part of the state.