Assam Geography

State: Assam
Capital: Dispur
Formation Date: December 2, 1928
Latitude: 22°19' to 28°16' North
Longitude: 89°42' to 96°30' East
Area: 78,438 km²
High Court: Guwahati
Number of Districts: 35
Population: 3.09 crores (2012)

Assam is situated in the foothills of the eastern Himalayas and is the largest state in the Northeast and is nestled between the river Brahmaputra and Barak. Assam covers about 2.4 % of India’s geographical area. The Brahmaputra basin covers an area of 5,80,000 sq km, of which 70,634 sq km lies in Assam.

Assam has a very uneven topography that adds to its surreal beauty. The state shares borders with Arunachal Pradesh in the east, West Bengal, Meghalaya, Bangladesh in the west, Arunachal Pradesh, Bhutan in the north, and Nagaland, Mizoram, Manipur, Tripura, Meghalaya in the south. Its longitude lies from 88.250 E to 96.00 E, and its latitude at 24.50 N to 28.00 N.

The temperature here varies from 60 C TO 380 C. The southwest monsoons make the weather very humid and give an average rainfall of 120 inches or more in the Brahmaputra valley. Monsoons are the lifelines of Assam and bless the biodiversity that is at par with equatorial rainforests. The topography and the warm hot, humid climate are best suited for growing plants and vegetation. There are 51 forest and sub-forest types here.

The Brahmaputra river flows through Assam from east to west for about 650 km. The main branch originates in the Tibetan plateau flowing from the west to east as the Tsangpo river and turning south at the lower Himalayas to make its way through Assam. The distinct monsoon season here gives large rainfall.